The Continuity and Disruption of Medicine
Dr. Lieou Yong-choen, “the Father of BCG in China”: Circulating and (re)producing of Medical Knowledge in the Modern French Empire
Dr. Lieou Yong-choen is known for his scientific research and popularizing the BCG vaccine in China during 1930-1950. Based upon specific historical archives, we aim to demonstrate his educational and professional experience at University Aurora, University of Strasbourg and the Pasteur Institute (Paris, Saigon and Shanghai). The present study focuses on how the French medical knowledge system disseminates throughout the entire Empire. Meanwhile the characteristics of Chinese doctors trained in cultural encounters are analyze in details.
New science? Or old skill? When the western scientist encounters to the Chinese medicine
The propagation of the western medicine towards the oriental has been happened at the same with the introduction of the Chinese Medicine towards to the occident after the Columbus’ exchange. However, the initial route of transmission is in an entirely different way. The Chinese awared the western way of diagnosis and treatment as well as the ideas of medical science through the good effective presented by the western doctors and the medical books translated by the missionary. So that Chinese people can directly understand the techniques and theories of the western medicine. The Chinese medical knowledge, on the other hand, was introduced into the European world through commercial channels. When the western businessmen, travelers and missionaries return from their explorations in the orient they usually bring with them a considerable quantity of the Chinese medical books and drugs.
When the oriental medicine was introduced to the occident in the 17th century, just before the European science entered the era of Newton’s science, Chinese medicine was regarded as a new technique and a new method that attracted the distinguished scientists such as Robert Boyle and Robert Hooker attention. In his “Some considerations touching the usefulness of experimental natural philosophy”, Boyle compare studies the western medicine with the Chinese medicine. He quested how did Chinse medicine heal the sick without the blood cutting. He thought the European doctors could read more Chinese medical books to understand the Chinese medical skill. But he did not think the Chinese medicine is better than the western one. The paper will explore how does the spread of the Chinese medicine happen? What is the historical process? The author quests what kind of knowledge and technology is the Chinese medicine from the view of European scientists? Is it a new science or an old skill? How do they explain the oriental medicine within the framework of their knowledge? My argument is that the history of medicine and medicine studies have investigated the different styles of scientific practices in 17-18th century Europe and have explored the difficulties of communicating across such differences. Certainly, attention to different scientific cultures and practices has enriched the scholarship.
Technological and Political Function of Acupuncture in the National Discourse System of China: Taking People’s Daily as the Center (1946-1986)
People’s Daily, one of the most important state-run paper in China, has been always representing the state’s will since it was born. Most of its releasings express the government and public’s concerns. It is a remarkable phenomenon that acupuncture, a Chinese medicine clinical art, which is likely not easy to be noted by the official newspaper, hit the headlines of the paper very frequently. In a rough review, there are more than 2’000 reports have been seen on People’s Daily during 1946-1986, and the publishing scope is very extensive, including acupuncture technological innovation, education, relevant scientific research, international communication, clinic institution, acupuncture figure, animal acupuncture, and so on. As a state-backed publication, People’s Daily must not issue articles from an academic angle like some professional journals; usually, the national speaking power is what it has been thinking about. All the acupuncture reports in the paper have reflected the national policies, such as health care policy, Chinese medicine promotion policy, medical diplomacy policy.
On tracing the articles of acupuncture on People’s Daily from 1946 to 1986 in chronological order, I am going to argue the position and function of acupuncture in the China’s society transforming process, especially in some mass movements promoted by the government. The united front instruction, the Chinese medicine scientification, unity of Chinese and western doctors, the great leap forward, barefoot doctor campaign, all these social movements have been involved by acupuncture reports. Moreover, I also look forward to figuring out some new inspirations of acupuncture’s going.
Essentialness and Practicalness: How to Recognize Body for East-west-dissolveness Schools of Chinese medicine Physicians in Modern Times
To recognize and accept the modern anatomical physiology is an arduous journey for Chinese medicine community in Modern times. This article tries to explore the process that if and how Chinese medicine physicians that time got to learn and acquaint western medicine system, taking Quantixinlunshuzheng (explanations for an atlas of anatomical plates of human) by Zhang Shanlei, a Chinese medicine physician with open mind to western medicine in Modern times, as the center.
The practitioners of Chinese medicine there eventually invented a theory to tell Chinese physiology from the western’s; western medical anatomy refered to essential organs and Chinese medicine focused on the practicalness of body. At first, when Chinese doctors began to face to western medicine in late Qing dynasty, they had attempted to absorb western body knowledge into Chinese medicine system, but failed. Then they struggled to find the new way to distinguish Chinese body ideas from the essential acknowledge of west, essentialness and practicalness. Since late Modern times, Chinese medicine community had been withdrewing their endeavor to dissolve western and eastern physiological ideas, and try to learn and accept western medicine knowledge. But they still believed that Chinese medicine physiology had its own advantages. Till to today, this thinking are conceived by most Chinese medicine doctors.