Food Uses: Grain amaranth has been used for food by humans in a number of ways. Oftentimes the leaves would be rolled into balls and baked to save for the winter. Washington, D.C.: National Academy, 1984. Scientists in Kansas have found examples of the dreaded pigweed that are immune to … Dyckman Roebuck Arcaheology. It possesses marked antioxidant activity. Portulaca oleracea (common purslane, also known as duckweed, little hogweed, or pursley) is an annual succulent in the family Portulacaceae, which may reach 40 cm (16 in) in height.Approximately forty cultivars are currently grown. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, folate, lithium, and melatonin are also present.2, 8, 9, 11, Purslane has been investigated for its pharmacological actions in neurological disorders, diabetes, cancer, ulcers, microbial infections, liver disease, and as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Scientific Name(s): Portulaca oleracea L.Common Name(s): Garden (common) purslane, Ma Chi Xian, Munyeroo, Pigweed, Portulaca, Pourpier, Purslane, Pusley, Pussly, Rigla, Sormai. The shapes and sizes of amaranth species vary, but they all have medium to large sized alternating simple oval-shaped leaves and stems with some red coloration. Austin, TX: University of Texas, 2003. The grain can be popped like popcorn or flaked like oatmeal. Pigweed Amaranthus retroflexus. Today amaranth can be found almost everywhere from central Canada to Argentina (Sauer 1950b). Fresh or dried pigweed leaves can be used to make tea. The Zuni have a recipe in which they make a meal out of ground amaranth seeds and black corn, which they mix with water, form into balls (or pats), and steam them on a grid of slender sticks fixed over a pot of boiling water (Kindscher 1987: 20). Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. Amaranth has some medicinal applications as well. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. An infusion has been used to treat hoarseness. In the long-running war between farmers and weeds, it's advantage, weeds. Gout and arthritis are examples of rheumatic diseases. Both histological and biochemical studies have shown free-radical scavenging activity, as well as reduced lipid peroxidation, lactate dehydrogenase, and consequent reduced oxidative stress.15, 25, 26, 27 Reduced inflammation consequent to hypoxic injury has been demonstrated with administration of purslane extracts.28 Other proposed mechanisms include increased glycolysis and adenosine triphosphate levels and promotion of endogenous erythropoietin.29, 30 Experimental studies report levels of noradrenaline and dopamine in the leaves, stems, and seeds of less than 1%, but no anticholinesterase activity for either ethanol or water extracts.26, 31, Limited experiments conducted in mice have demonstrated neuroprotective effects against induced hypoxic injury by ethanol extracts and betacyanins. Palmer’s pigweed, careless weed, Palmer’s amaranth,             Pigweed is a name used for several members of the Amaranthus family, though it usually refers to the Amaranthus palmeri.  Despite the unappetizing name, pigweed is an edible plant and one that was important to the American Indians in the southwestern North America and Central America.Â. Web. Google Books. Purslane has been used as a vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids and is high in vitamins and minerals. That’s low compared to many weeds. Ancient Romans used purslane to treat dysentery, intestinal worms, headache, and stomachache. The Oxford Companion to Food. Google Books. Synonyms are Portulaca neglecta Mack. The plant has serrated leaves, white flowers, and grows up to 0.7 m in height.1, 2, 3.             The Amaranthus palmeri plant is leafy and somewhat tall.  They typically grow around 3-6 feet tall but can reach up to 15 feet in native growing conditions.  Its leaves are broad, lance-shaped, and anywhere from 2-8 inches long.  They are green with prominent white veins underneath and have long petioles.Â. Call me: 785-864-2660, Foods Indigenous to the Western Hemisphere.             The epazote is native to the tropical regions of Central and South America.  The herb was used by ancient civilizations such as the Aztecs.  Indeed, the name “epazote” derives from the Aztecan name for it, epazotl, which itself is a combination of the words epatl (skunk) and tzotl (filth) due to its strong stench (American Heritage Dic).Â. Limited clinical studies are available to provide dosage guidelines; however, the following dosages have been used: Bronchodilation: one clinical study used 0.25 mL/kg body weight of a 5% aqueous extract.24, Type 2 diabetes: 5 g of powdered seeds taken twice daily over 8 weeks.34 When 180 mg/day of purslane extract (Portusana EFLA 308), equivalent to 750 mg/day dried herb or 15 g/day fresh herb, given for 12 weeks was showed potential benefit in diabetic adults treated with biguanides.35, Hyperlipidemia (adolescents): Purslane seeds 500 mg twice daily for 1 month improved LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in obese adolescents.5, Oral lichen planus: 235 mg/day of purslane ethanol extract.37, Abnormal uterine bleeding: Powdered seeds at a dose of 5 g every 4 hours for 3 days.23, Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. History. P. oleracea is an herbaceous, succulent annual growing 10 to 30 cm tall and preferring sandy soil and warmer conditions. This crop, locally known as huauhtli in nauhatl and bledo in Spanish was used to make idols of dough ,called zoale, that represented the war god Huitzilopochtli. white pigweed. Here’s what you need to know about the invasive and dangerous giant hogweed plant, which can pose health risks and cause serious injuries and burns when touched. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure.             The leaves are also sometimes added to teas in Latin America. Web. Tucker, Arthur O., Thomas DeBaggio, Francesco DeBaggio, and Arthur O. Tucker. Mayo Ethnobotany: Land, History, and Traditional Knowledge in Northwest Mexico. Amaranth is thought to have originated in the Americas and then spread to Europe, Asia and Africa sometime after European colonization began (Sauer 1967; Sauer 1993). Some varieties of amaranths have been used to produce a natural food coloring dye used to give a reddish tint to corn wafers, corn beer (chicha), and other products (Heiser 1964; Sauer 1950a; unknown 1895). Duke's Handbook of Medicinal Plants of Latin America. Dandelions contain bioactive compounds that may help lower a person’s cholesterol. Goutweed is used for rheumatic diseases. Both of these weeds have populations in other parts of the U.S. that have become resistant to nearly every herbicide mode of action used in crop production. It has also been recorded that the native tribes as far north as Montana ate the leaves and seeds of the prostrate pigweed. W aterhemp and Palmer amaranth are two pigweed species that now are found in North Dakota and pose a serious threat to crop production. Effects on uterine contractions are contradictory. It has reddish-brown stems, alternate wedge-shaped leaves, clusters of yellow flowers containing 4 to 6 petals that bloom in summer, and numerous black, shiny, and rough seeds. It has also been associated with a number of health benefits, including reduced inflammation, lower cholesterol levels and increased weight loss. Information on this site is for educational purposes only. Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation. Never apply glyphosate alone to emerged pigweed A number of upright varieties like Palmer pigweed (A. palmeri) and smooth pigweed (A. hybridus) can grow 3 to 10 feet (1 to 3 meters) tall with stout stems. There was no change in the cholesterol content of the eggs, but there was an increase in omega-3 fatty acid content.41 Circulating levels of melatonin have been increased in chickens and rats fed purslane.11, 100 g of fresh purslane leaves yields approximately 300 to 400 mg of alpha linolenic acid.11, Traditional Chinese Medicine texts have been reported to use 9 to 15 g to treat fever, dysentery, diarrhea, carbuncle, eczema, and hematochezia; doses up to 30 g/day have also been noted.4, 35. Use full labeled rates; For postemergence treatments, make timely applications and apply to small pigweed (<4 inches tall). 3.1.3 Impermeable Seed Coat. Pigweed plants are commonly considered to be weeds by farmers and gardeners because they thrive in disturbed soils. Handbook of Spices, Seasonings, and Flavorings. A look at burdock root, a plant native to North Asia and Europe with many medicinal uses.It has bene used to treat several common ailments, … The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. This plant (also known as little hogweed) should not be confused with giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum).1, 2, 3, In ancient times, purslane was used to protect against evil spirits. At maturity, waterhemp is considerable taller than other pigweeds ranging anywhere from 1.5-2.5 m (4.5'-7.5') in height. The seeds are particularly nutritious and are high in protein, fiber, and vitamins A and C. You can eat the seeds raw, roasted, cooked as a hot cereal, and even popped like popcorn. Purslane was well tolerated with constipation listed as the only adverse event probably related to treatment.35, As a component of medical nutrition therapy for patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, the American Diabetes Association Standards of Care (2014) recommend an increase in foods containing alpha-linolenic acid based on beneficial effects observed on lipoprotein profiles, heart disease prevention, and overall positive health in patients with diabetes (moderate-quality evidence).36, A triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 74 obese Iranian adolescents with dyslipidemia to determine the effects of purslane seeds (500 mg twice daily × 1 month) on lipid parameters. No significant improvement was seen in glucose control overall. At first glance, this would not appear to be a soft underbelly since single pigweed plants can produce 300,000 seeds or more. Seeds of redroot pigweed, wild mustard, shepherd's-purse, and field pepperweed often have seed coats impermeable to water, oxygen, or both.The seeds are called “hard.” It is another dormancy mechanism. Using non-selective herbicides containing the chemicals glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium works well. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. At 8 weeks, improvements in serum insulin and triglycerides were noted, as well as improvements in liver function tests.34 The efficacy of purslane extract in achieving glucose control in adults with type 2 diabetes was evaluated in a 12-week, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial (n=63). _____ (1) Spurrier, Jeff. Their common name, pigweed, may have comes from its use as fodder for pigs. Include Group 15 herbicides in the both corn and soybean. The epazote continues to be a popular plant to this day.  It grows rapidly and easily; its abundance in the wild makes it a widely available herb.  The epazote has also been naturalized in North America, particularly California, and introduced to Europe by the conquistadors.  In these parts of the world, the epazote is known as a weed and not recognized for its culinary potential. http://www.wnmu.edu/academic/nspages2/gilaflora/dysphania_ambrosioides.jpg, http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/photos/DYSAMB_EJJ.jpg, http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/imgs/512x768/0000_0000/0809/1953.jpeg. Also, stay away from plants growing along major highways or that may have been sprayed with herbicides, because of the dangers of lead poisoning from automobile exhaust or other poisons (Hodgson 2001: 79).Â. Hutson, Lucinda. Pigweed definition is - any of various vigorous weedy plants especially of the goosefoot or amaranth families. Life cycle: summer annual Growth habit: erect, grows 2 to 5 ft. high, branching; leaves alternate, egg-shaped, dull green to reddish Reproduction: seed; small greenish flowers produced in dense, stiff terminal panicles; seed production from late summer to fall, until severe frost; can produce up to 117,000 seeds per plant This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. Goutweed is also used for hemorrhoids, as well as for kidney, bladder, and intestinal disorders. tumbleweed.             For American Indians, pig weed or Amaranthus palmeri was one of the few dependable summer vegetables in a desert environment.  They would frequently consume the vegetable while waiting for the corn and beans to be harvested (NRC). Aerial parts are dried and used for fever, diarrhea, carbuncle, eczema, and hematochezia.4 Other TCM uses include diabetes, atherosclerosis, vascular endothelial dysfunction, and urolithiasis.5 The Chinese, French, Italians, and English also used purslane as a food source.2, 6, Purslane is considered a rich vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants, including tocopherol, ascorbic acid, beta carotene, and glutathione.7, 8, 9, 10, 11 The alpha-linolenic acid content varies with cultivar, geography, and environmental factors, with leaves having a greater percentage than seeds and stems.10, 12 The plant's bright yellow flowers are of interest in the food industry because of the nitrogen-containing betalain pigments.13, 14, Purslane also contains carbohydrates, lipids, glycosides, alkaloids (including oleraceins), sterols, coumarins, triterpenes, and flavonoids.15, 16, 17, 18 Phenolic constituents of the plant include scopoletin, bergapten, isopimpinellin, lonchocarpic acid, robustin, genistein, and others.19 Amino acids in the leaves of the Portulaca species include phenylalanine, alanine, tyrosine, and aspartate.20 Plant acids include citric, malic, ascorbic, succinic, fumaric, and acetic acids.21 The volatile oil of P. oleracea has also been studied and contains mainly linalool and 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol.22, Purslane is a rich source of vitamins A, B, C, and E and is high in carotenoid content, including beta-carotene. The dough was made out of milled amaranth and toasted corn seeds mixed with honey or maguey sap.             The Mohave and Yuma cooked or baked the fresh pigweed greens as a vegetable, while the Pima would eat the greens with corn (Moerman).  Navajo ground the seeds to use in food or as a sweetener.  The Papago Tribe also consumed the seeds and leaves as well as the seed baskets, which they sun-dried.Â.             There are several types of plants commonly known as “pigweed.”  However, the two most standard plants to be called that name are the Dysphania ambrosioides and the Amaranthus palmeri.  The Amaranthus palmeri is native to North America, while Dysphania ambrosioides is native to Central America and is more commonly known as epazote. Reducing cholesterol. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. Gout and arthritis are examples of rheumatic diseases. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition.             The leaves were used by the Catawba Tribe for snakebites and other poisonings, while Peruvians have also been know to apply the leaves to treat arthritis (Staub & Buchert)..  The epazote has also been used as a contraceptive.  In fact, research of the epazote lead to the first commercial birth-control pill in the 1960s (Staub & Buchert). tumble pigweed. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.             The epazote is a short-lived, green-colored plant that grows up to around 1.2 meters tall.  It has serrated, oblong leaves grown on slim green stalks that branch out from the base.  The aromatic leaves are sticky and turn from a tender green to a coarse red when matured.Â. Purslane was standardized to total phenolics equivalent to approximately 1.8 mg gallic acid. A. retroflexus was used for a multitude of food and medicinal purposes by many Native American groups. The most common usage is to grind the grain into a flour for use in breads, noodles, pancakes, cereals, granola, cookies, or other flour-based products. Leaves can be small (<1.5" long), are egg-shaped, and may have wavy edges. The traditional Zuni myth that the seeds of prostrate pigweed were scattered over the surface of the earth by the rain priests demonstrates the cultural importance that this plant once had for these people. “Just tell yourself you are not going t… Raghavan, Susheela. Clinical studies are limited.4, A small clinical study (N = 10) evaluated the efficacy of purslane seeds and found reductions in duration and volume of uterine bleeding.23, A small clinical trial (N = 13) evaluated the bronchodilatory effect of oral purslane extract compared with that of oral theophylline and inhaled salbutamol. Besides being a nutritious vegetable and grain, recent studies show that amaranth oil may benefit patients with cardiovascular disease (Martirosyan et al. Purslane extract showed improvements in pulmonary function tests similar to those of theophylline.24, Effects of both ethanol and aqueous extracts of purslane are attributed in part to observed antioxidant activity. Today some parts of Mexico continue to create a popped amaranth confection called alegría with is similar to zoale (578). While all parts of pigweed plants are edible, some parts have more popular uses than others.  For example the young plants and growing tips of older plants make nutritious vegetables that can be boiled like spinach or eaten raw as salad. Browse 165 pigweed stock photos and images available, or search for amaranthus or ragweed to find more great stock photos and pictures. However, a statistically significant improvement in HbA1c was observed in 'responders' (HbA1c less at end of study) who received purslane. In Haiti, the epazote shoot is rubbed onto the skin to kill parasites (Duke).  A tea made of the leaves can also be used to treat digestive problems and dysentery.  The epazote is also ingested to treat coughs and asthma. This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. Despite the unappetizing name, pigweed is an edible plant and one that was important to the American Indians in the southwestern North America and Central America. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.             Also known as pigweed, the epazote is a key herb in Mexican and Carribean cooking.  Yet the herb has not gained much popularity outside of its native Central America because of its extremely pungent odor, which wards off people unfamiliar with the plant. Medicinal use of Pigweed: A tea made from the leaves is astringent. Davidson, Alan. Culpepper has a picture he uses to make a point in some Extension presentations. It possesses marked antioxidant activity. In parts of Asia and Africa these plants have grown in importance as food crops and been developed into ornamental varieties (Sauer 1967). Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and directory medicinal. Pigweed is a name used for several members of the Amaranthus family, though it usually refers to the Amaranthus palmeri. Explore {{searchView.params.phrase}} by color family {{familyColorButtonText(colorFamily.name)}} Robert L. Zimdahl, in Fundamentals of Weed Science (Fifth Edition), 2018. The pigweed’s green flowers are very small and grow in dense, cone-shaped clusters at the top of the plant.  Male and female flowers grow on different plants.  When mature and dry, the flower spikes are scratchy and tough.  They produce tiny, dark, and shiny seeds. Goutweed is used for rheumatic diseases. Traditional Chinese Medicine recommendations of 9 to 15 g of dried aerial parts, and 10 to 30 g fresh herb, have been reported for a variety of indications.             In Mexico, the seeds are still used to make candy by baking them with honey.  The young leaves of the pigweed can be cooked like spinach.  It must be warned, however, that pigweed growing in fertilized soil cannot be consumed. Pigweed, bean herb, American wormseed, Jesuit’s Tea, sweet pigweed, skunkweed, West Indian goosefoot.Â. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis, 2009. Limited clinical studies have not reported clinically important adverse effects. Print. Amaranth Modern Prospects for an Ancient Crop. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) also called red-root amaranth, red-rooted pigweed, common amaranth, pigweed amaranth, common tumbleweed and herbalist handbook on old wooden … Goutweed is also used for hemorrhoids, as well as for kidney, bladder, and intestinal disorders. The Aztecs also made tortillas and tamales out of amaranth flour along and used the greens, as well (569). Berkeley: University of California, 2002. Roebuck, Paul. Dahl, Kevin. Redroot Pigweed Amaranthus retroflexus L.. Family: Amaranthaceae Habit: summer annual Habitat: Important weed of agronomic crops and gardens. Pigweed Herbs Medicinal Plants Nature Flora Annual Plants Flowers Plants Prostrate Knotweed - Polygonum aviculare Prostrate Knotweed (common knotgrass, birdweed, pigweed and lowgrass) - Polygonum aviculare is annual plant whose stringy stalks crawl on the ground reaching a length up to 60cm. Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, new drug approvals, alerts and updates. Effects on uterine contractions are contradictory and poorly evaluated; judicious use is warranted.23, 34, Clinical studies are limited; however, no clinically important adverse events have been reported in these trials.23, 24, 34, 37 Older references suggest increases in kidney filtration rates and increased urine production, but these have not been further evaluated.34, Studies are lacking; however, a toxicology study of Portulaca grandiflora Hook, a related species, found no evidence of toxicity on histology, hematology, or biochemistry.42.             The epazote’s small flowers grow in clustered spikes of the same light green color.  It produces numerous oval seeds that are small and reddish-brown. Boca Raton, FL: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2007. In the Prairie Bioregion of North America, prostrate pigweed (A. grae’cizans L.) and the redroot pigweed (A. retroflexus L.) were most familiar to indigenous populations, although their use as food is not well documented. Willem Malten is a baker, filmmaker and community activist. It shows a spot in a field where emerged pigweeds were hit with Roundup plus dicamba. Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. Scoparia has been used as a remedy for treating diabetes mellitus in India and hypertension in Taiwan. Responders who were treated with biguanides before study enrollment demonstrated a significantly greater change in HbA1c when treated with purslane compared to placebo. Illustration about Common Purslane Portulaca oleracea , or verdolaga, pigweed, little hogweed, red root, pursley. Purslane has been used as a vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids and is high in vitamins and minerals. Since the use of this plant was considered as sacrilegious by the Colonial authorities its use declined quickly during the Colonial Period. It has been used for thousands of years in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and is referred to as the "vegetable for long life."             The Amaranthus palmeri is native to eastern North America, stretching from northwest Mexico up through California and throughout the American Southwest.  The Amaranthus family was important to ancient Native cultures.  The Aztecs considered it a vital grain, and used it in rituals and in a variety of dishes.  The pigweed was cultivated by the Southwestern American Indians as a useful and nutrient-heavy plant. Roles in abnormal uterine bleeding, asthma, type 2 diabetes, and oral lichen planus are suggested; however, clinical studies are limited and diverse in nature. Print. Duke, James A., Mary Jo Bogenschutz-Godwin, and Andrea R. Ottesen. & Bush and Portulaca retusa Engelm. This dose met the criteria as 'food' and was in line with the recommended dosage of 10 to 30 g/day described in a Chinese herbal medicine text. Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of purslane for neuroprotective effects or other CNS conditions. He owns and runs Cloud Cliff Bakery in Santa Fe, New Mexico. When choosing amaranth plants to eat remove any sharp spins that may be present on some varieties. This is a disease category that includes autoimmune diseases and diseases that affect the joints and soft tissues. The seeds of pigweed are also very nutritious, and can be collected by shaking the tops of the older plants. Web. Illustration of medicinal, healthy, care - 103698200 Originally these plants would only have been found in prairie-dog towns, buffalo wallows, stream banks, roadsides, and agricultural fields were exposed soils provided them their ideal habitat. This is a disease category that includes autoimmune diseases and diseases that affect the joints and soft tissues. After four or five years, though, only about 10% of the initial population will be capable of emergence. Pumpkin – Cucurbita pepo - Medicinal use of Pumpkin One hundred grams of fresh purslane leaves yields approximately 300 to 400 mg of alpha linolenic acid. Amerindians in South, Central, and North America commonly used amaranth as a vegetable and a grain. Print. Tumble pigweed (Amaranthus albus) Tumble pigweed is shrubby in habit; the plant grows to heights of about 3' and can be highly branched. They may only be used in areas where you wish to clear out all plants. The Aztecs used amaranth during at least six other seasonal festivals honoring various deities. During the festival these idols are broken up, distributed, and eaten in a communion ceremony (Sauer 1950b: 568). Medically reviewed by Drugs.com.             The epazote was central to Aztecan cooking and is used in many modern Central American cuisines.  Its fresh and dried leaves are used as herbs, though the flowers, stalks, and seeds can also be used in this manner.  The epazote has a strong, bitter, and faintly lemony taste.  The red, mature leaves are often dried for later usage. At the time of initial Euro-American colonization of North America, when only a small portion of exposed soils were present, it is no wonder that the inconspicuous pigweeds were not documented as a common food plant of the Native Americans (Kindscher 1987: 21). Yetman, David, and Devender Thomas R. Van. Due to the fact that pigweed is a broadleaf weed, the use of any broadleaf weed killers will work sufficiently. A small clinical trial (N = 30) evaluated the effect of purslane seeds in type 2 diabetes. Pigweed seed can be ground into a powder and used as a cereal substitute, it can also be sprouted and added to salads. 2007). As agricultural land was expanded in the Americas by European Americans, pigweeds are thought to have become more common and developed their reputation as an unwanted pest. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age. Aztecs and peoples of other cultures consumed both the leafy greens and the seeds, and they used the plants as medicinal herbs and as a source of ceremonial face and body paint. The botanical name is derived from the Latin potare, meaning to "carry," and lac or "milk," referring to the milky sap of the plant. Throughout the Americas amaranth has decreased in cultural importance, but increased in frequency since the Colonial Period. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. These seeds may be eaten raw, cooked as hot cereal or mush, ground into flour, popped like popcorn, or any number of ways (Kindscher 1987: 19). Several species of amaranth have been used for food by Native Americans and pre-Columbian civilizations since prehistoric times. A physician can offer medical diagnosis, medical advice and treatment. Tests have shown that over 50% of waterhemp seeds remain viable after one year. It is sometimes considered a weed because of its invasive growth patterns. Stems and leaves are light green in color. Pigweed plant uses include harvesting and eating the seeds, raw or cooked. Aztecs use epazote as both a culinary and medicinal herb-medicinal qualities focus on its carminative properties (antigas), but it has also been used to expel intestinal hookworms.             The epazote is added to cooked dishes such as soups and rice.  It can also be used fresh for salads.  The epazote is best known for its anti-flatulent properties, thus making it an especially popular additive in bean dishes.  It is commonly added at the end of the cooking process to avoid excess bitterness. Cognition improved and anxiety was reduced in behavioral tests, and histology and biochemical measurements showed neuroprotective properties.28, 29, 32, 33. National Research Council (U.S.). Last updated on Jun 2, 2020. It is among the species consumed as a vegetable in Mexican markets as Quelite quintonil . Select one or more newsletters to continue. These idols were used during a festival, which took place in May, honoring this god. The Encyclopedia of Herbs: a Comprehensive Reference to Herbs of Flavor and Fragrance. Portland: Timber, 2009. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product. Edible Phoenix (Spring 2007). It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. Limited clinical studies are available to provide dosage guidelines; however, 180 mg/day of purslane extract has been studied in diabetic patients, and powdered seeds have been taken at 1 to 30 g daily in divided doses, as well as both ethanol and aqueous purslane extracts. Print. Similar Species: Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) has wavy leaf margins and an upper stem that is very hairy whereas Powell amaranth has entire leaf margins and upper stems lacking hairs. Roles in abnormal uterine bleeding, asthma, type 2 diabetes, and oral lichen planus are suggested; however, clinical studies are limited and diverse in nature. Contraindications have not been identified. Print. The Aztecs of Mesoamerica also cultivated amaranth as one of their major crops.             The epazote is also employed for medicinal purposes, most commonly in tea-form as a way to expel intestinal parasites. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. Email me: mihesuah@ku.edu S. dulcis is a perennial medicinal herb distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions. http://www.delange.org/Amaranth/Dsc00037.jpg, http://flora.huh.harvard.edu//FloraData/001/Illus/fna04/fna4-062.gif. The Herb Garden Cookbook: the Complete Gardening and Gourmet Guide. Use effective soil applied herbicides at planting. No adverse effects were reported.5, Oral purslane performed better than placebo in treating oral lichen planus when administered daily at 235 mg of purslane extract.37, In vitro studies demonstrated hepatoprotective effects against cisplatin-induced injury38 activity against human hepatoma and cervical cancer cell lines17 and increased proliferation of thymocytes and splenic lymphocytes.25 Purslane has been reported to possess antifungal, vermicidal, and antiviral effects.18, 19, 39 Experiments in mice showed increased wound-healing rates with topical applications of crude fresh plant extracts3 and reduced severity of induced-gastric ulcers with ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts.40 Studies in chickens fed purslane have shown improved feed efficiency with reduced body weight and increased egg production. The leaves contain vitamins A and C, and iron and calcium. Also, redroot pigweed flowers are held in short, … We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information -. The flavour is greatly improved by roasting the seed before grinding it. Purslane extract was dosed at 180 mg/day, which corresponded to 750 mg dried purslane or 15 g fresh herb per day.             The Hopi, Pueblo, and other Southwestern American Indians made a reddish dye out of the Amaranthus palmeri seeds. The greens are rich in iron, calcium, niacin, and vitamins A and C (Hodgson 2001: 78). It is used in the treatment of profuse menstruation, intestinal bleeding, diarrhoea etc. Purslane's medicinal use dates back at least 2,000 years, but it was used as food well before this period. Uses: A. Ethnobotany of the Early Navajo. The seed is very small but easy to harvest and very nutritious. One study from 2010 examined the effects of … Traditional medicinal uses for purslane are broad. Amerindian populations in the Southwest and Great Basin regions (such as the Navaho, Tewa, Zuni, Havasupai, Yuman, Apache, and other Pueblo Indians) used the greens and seeds of pigweeds more extensively, and may have even cultivated some varieties. Hand drawn botanical vector illustration. After 1 month, significant improvements from baseline observed with purslane that were also significantly different than placebo were seen in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (−11 mg/dL, P<0.001) and triglycerides (−16 mg/dL, P=0.006). Links to other websites are provided for your convenience and those other sites are owned by third parties. Its specific epithet oleracea means "vegetable/herbal" in Latin and is a form of holeraceus (oleraceus).. Prostrate pigweed has a flattened growth habit and reddish to red stems. Pigweed resistance to dicamba and 2,4-D has been confirmed in Kansas, he said. It is distinguished by its narrow leaves, wavy leaf margins and near hairless leaves and stems with a "smooth to the touch" feel. Only three species are commonly grown as minor food crops in modern agriculture: … Amaranth seeds are high in protein (15 to 16 %), high in fiber content (~8%), and contain nutritionally siginificant levels of Vitamins A and C (Mallory 2007: 57). Epazote has also been used for nervous disorders, asthma and menstruation (4). “They are relatively short-lived in the soil,” Bradley says. Use Group 14 (PPO) in soybean followed by Group 27 (HPPD) in corn. II. The lens-shaped amaranth seeds are dark brown or black colored in weedy species and light-colored in domestic species (Kindscher 1987: 19). Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 2 Nov 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 2 Nov 2020), ASHP (updated 23 Oct 2020) and others. The purslane family includes several fleshy plants. This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. The pigweed can now be found throughout the United States, but is considered an invasive weed species nowadays. Available for Android and iOS devices. "Amaranth: A Delicious Weed." However, the prostrate pigweed (A. graecizans) grows close to the ground and has smaller leaves.  The greenish flowers of amaranth plants form a dense cluster at the tops of the plants of the upright varieties or among the leaves of the prostrate pigweed.

pigweed medicinal uses

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