I believe that Heidegger is right when he says that Nietzsche's project is a metaphysical one, but wrong when he claims that the metaphysics Nietzsche uses is fundamentally Cartesian. "79 True, Wilcox is not viewing Nietzsche as a Darwinist in the literal sense of one who uses evolutionary metaphors to explain changes in organisms, but is instead suggesting that Nietzsche uses evolutionary language to explain changes in our structure of ideas. These ideas represent the Enlightened position that the world behaves in a way that is fundamentally rational; as such they were obvious targets for Nietzsche's anti-Enlightenment rhetoric. "Science must now demonstrate its utility! He writes in the Gay Science: "the struggle for existence is only an exception, a temporary restriction of the will to life. It promotes social principles which are very much at odds with the new kind of subjectivity which Nietzsche wishes to advocate. Nietzsche does not directly challenge specific terms from Rousseau's political thought such as "general will" or "social contract." Indeed, culture under the right circumstances might serve to mediate power in ways that a community of equals could serve as a means to organizing individual power as agency.20. It is my hope that an account of this struggle may prove instructive or helpful for the rest of us as we try to work out for ourselves whether it is possible or desirable to overcome Enlightenment, and if so how we should go about it. Trans. As I hope to make clear both here in this chapter and the one that follows it, I feel that this hostility derives from Nietzsche's conviction that the autonomous subject of Enlightened political discourse is hopelessly inadequate. The error of free will, Nietzsche warns, is especially dangerous because it leads to morality, which he viewed as one of the great destructive forces of his time. "74 It is important to note here the difference between this approach and that of the other Enlightened scientist I have discussed, Descartes. "18 And to a large extent he accomplished this. What makes him 'enthuse' in his way and then leads him to draw a line of hope, a horizon of desirability--that eventual reconciliation of 'egoism and altruism' about which he raves--almost nauseates the likes of us; a human race that adopted such Spencerian perspectives as its ultimate perspectives would seem to us worthy of contempt, of annihilation! If the objector goes on to ask why it ought, I can give him no other reason than general utility. Cambridge University Press is committed by its charter to disseminate knowledge as widely as possible across the globe. GS, 335) but rather to an interpretation which refuses to acknowledge that science is itself an interpretation in the sense that it provides a revisable description of a part of the world which is no more real than any other. Utilitarianism is, for Nietzsche, an impractical philosophy. "95 Our belief that we freely choose, then, is as unfounded as our belief that we are rational creatures, and with these two key concepts put into question, the idea of free political choice is rendered extremely problematic. "15 A close examination of our belief in causality, Nietzsche claims, reveals this belief to be nothing more than the product of our thought processes; it has no necessary bearing on or relation to the natural world. History of European Ideas 11 (1989): 743-750. However, Thiele's use of the phrase "glorification of the self as multiple" is, I think, misleading. .Nietzsche believed that the role of the individual in politics should be subservient to the role of politics within the individual. Rather, that critique flowed seamlessly into the nineteenth century. First, I do not believe that this approach adequately accounts for the influence that the Enlightenment retained, particularly in matters of science and politics, through the nineteenth century and indeed to the present day. Consider this section from Human, all too Human: "no one is accountable for his deeds, no one for his nature; to judge is the same thing as to be unjust. "150 In short, Nietzsche meant for us to understand that his theories are scientific in the sense that they are rigorous, not that they are empirically verifiable or that they represent a cosmological description of the actual physical world. What, then, were the elements of that critique? White is half right here. He thus repairs a breach in Enlightened thought. "58 The image here is a clearly totalitarian one. "108 Nietzsche attacks Spencer's idea of what makes a healthy society: while Spencer took his Victorian England to be the ideal, Nietzsche saw this society as one of decadence and decay. Here Darwin's theory of sexual selection, which is a corollary to his theory of natural selection, serves as the basis for a prescriptive attempt to legislate certain social roles for women. Men and Citizens: A Study of Rousseau's Social Theory. "48 Nietzsche's project strangely begins to resemble some kind of fatalistic religion rather than an Enlightened program: no Enlightenment utopia, after all, would involve the affirmation of suffering and sorrow. --. See to it, then, that the life which is only suffering ceases! Philosophy of Science 57 (1990): 619-630. He writes: "Now, as men cannot create any new forces, but only combine and direct those that exist, they have no other means of self-preservation than to form by aggregation a sum of forces which may overcome the resistance, to put them in action by a single motive power, and to make them work in concert. We find a similar passage in Twilight of the Idols: "Anti-Darwin. . "79 It is clear that Nietzsche has an unorthodox view of what a philosopher should be, "namely not merely a great thinker but also a real human being; and when did a scholar ever become a real human being? In this sense his work is reminiscent, as I shall argue below, of Enlightened thinkers such as Condorcet, who posit world history as a teleological process leading to a positive goal for humanity. "23 I do not believe this to be the case. This should not be surprising, of course, given the affinities Nietzsche has with the tradition of the Enlightenment. For instance, Nietzsche advocates for an experimental or scientific approach to morality in The Gay Science #7 - he calls for experiments to help show what is good and bad for different peoples in different circumstances; though, in that same … What Kant offered with his morality was nothing less than an attempt to appropriate Christian ethics into the Enlightenment through reason. "Opposing Science with Art, Again? He writes: "With Kant the Cartesian idea of the subject is clarified in the extreme, without its paradoxical structure. "116 By denouncing claims that knowledge is something exclusively possessed by autonomous thinking subjects, Nietzsche hoped to rescue us from a hopeless project: the project of trying to make existence fit into the limited framework of the traditional transcendental subject. Ironically, this is exactly the same kind of trap that Nietzsche himself falls into, as he criticizes the Enlightenment while continuing to make use of some of its most important categories. Nietzsche finds this idea of nature to be a naive and unrealistic depiction of humanity's natural state. Although Mill still held maximum happiness to be the greatest good, the way in which that happiness was to be pursued, and indeed the very definition of happiness, had now been changed. Indeed, as Nietzsche argues in the Nachla�, "science represents the higher morality in comparison to puzzle solving and system building. And if the public sphere was decadent, liberal democracy must be decadent as well. "103 Here Kant's old dictum acquires a profound new sense as Nietzsche refines and resolves the project of Enlightenment: one must have courage to know oneself. "32 In Nietzsche's mind, utility theory is based on the deeply flawed scientific ideas of the Enlightenment; it therefore cannot be valid. This is hardly the virulent critique of modern, Enlightened science we saw above; Nietzsche seems to be arguing here for the further development of science. "40 Yet what Michalson misses is the point that this move is quite deliberate on Kant's part: he wants to retain Christianity rather than dismissing it, but he realizes that his one chance to retain it is to turn it into something based on Enlightened rationality. Zarathustra speaks: "listen rather, my brothers, to the voice of the healthy body: that is a more honest and purer voice. is perhaps no longer even possible for us, despite the severity of the scientific mind! With this, however, you belong to the light-shunning kind who cannot rest where there is light; now you must daily bury your head deeper in night and haze. It is through the category of absolute reason that Kant is able to maintain an essentially Christian ethical position without explicit reference to a Christian God. Nietzsche's Teaching: An Interpretation of Thus Spoke Zarathustra. "What 'useful' means is entirely dependent upon the intention, the wherefore? Of course, Nietzsche's supreme individual could not be further removed from the rationally autonomous individual of the Enlightenment. As Anthony Cascardi notes, "according to conventional interpretations and, more importantly, on the authority of principles explicitly stated in Kant's second Critique, the obligations we construe as ethical may be regarded as the manifestations of a law which in turn reflects the rationality, freedom and autonomy of the subject-self. International Studies in Philosophy 21 (1989): 21-35. "To lose firm ground for once! 77Strong, Friedrich Nietzsche and the Politics of Transfiguration, 208. "The Enlightenment--A Stranded Project--Habermas on Nietzsche as a Turning-Point to Postmodernity." "Rousseau: The General Will and the Scandal of Politics." "The High Enlightenment and the Low-Life of Literature in Pre-Revolutionary France." And yet Lampert is also right to suggest here that it was against the alleged enlightenment of modern man that Nietzsche rallied. . '"34 Again, as Deleuze points out, Nietzsche is not interested so much in eternal return as such, but in the thought of return, for it is this thought which makes possible the creative impulse that he hopes will move the world closer to his vision of the future. As we know, the meaning of earth is, for Nietzsche, the overman. "92 By rejecting Kant's "intelligible freedom," Nietzsche implicitly rejects his entire ethical position. This progress is to come about through the development of the overman; the overman represents for Nietzsche a higher state of humanity and is in that sense clearly a notion of progress. As Babette Babich writes, "above all, [Nietzsche] challenges the presumption that rules regularity, that is, our scientific presumption of law. "69 He is careful to make clear that what he is discussing is a principle of natural law: "I mean by Nature, only the aggregate action and product of many natural laws, and by laws the sequence of events as ascertained by us. "17 There could be no reconciliation, Nietzsche felt, between the rights of the few and those of the many, and one of the fundamental problems of democracy was that it insisted on maintaining and defending the latter. Descartes writes: "Even though there may be a deceiver of some sort, very powerful and very tricky, who bends all his efforts to keep me perpetually deceived, there can be no slightest doubt that I exist, since he deceives me; and let him deceive me as much as he will, he can never make me be nothing as long as I think that I am something. As he pursues this project, his criticism of socialism almost seems to anticipate much later critiques of the totalitarian nature of socialism in the twentieth century. Thus he rallied against "the levelers--these falsely so-called 'free spirits'--being eloquent and prolifically scribbling slaves of the democratic taste and its 'modern ideas'.�.�. Like Rousseau, Mill was confronted by a conflict between two desirable goals: the good of the community and the good of the individual. The scientific man could be both a lowering and a strengthening because he represented, in Nietzsche's mind, two conflicting principles. Poetic Truth and Transvaluation in Nietzsche's Zarathustra: A Hermeneutic Study. Rational autonomy was Descartes's gift to those who followed, and it was a gift they used well. Nietzsche's praise of the Jewish people served as the counterpart to some very vindictive attacks that he made on the German people. And Nietzsche fears that this deceit, this fraud, has been tremendously successful: "What is certain is that, since Kant, transcendentalists of every kind have once more won the day--they have been emancipated from every kind of theologians: what joy! Nietzsche was very strongly opposed to this model of social development. He appeals, for example, to the well-known work of Charles Lyell: "New species have appeared very slowly, one after another, both on land and in the waters. "The doctrine of equality! Gay, Peter. She writes: "the majority of Nietzsche's statements about eternal recurrence are concerned with it as a thought. Chapter Two deals with his attack on the origins of Enlightenment. .With both thinkers, the project of autonomy is not the recovery of an original but alienated self, but the 'fulfillment' of the individual as the production of his own higher nature. Furthermore, as I shall make clear below, I believe that they represent essential aspects of Enlightenment thought. He writes: "There is simply for Nietzsche no coherent way to talk about politics of his day because--in genealogical perspective--the politics tend to be incoherent. The Review of Politics publishes primarily philosophical and historical "76 Again, Nietzsche is far here from the "abysmal thought." "136 Here Nietzsche, the self-proclaimed "old artilleryman," is admiring the discipline and rigor that are possible only in military and scientific minds. To complete this project, Nietzsche could not simply stop with a critique of liberalism. He writes in Twilight of the Idols: "when the anarchist, as the mouthpiece of the declining strata of society, demands with a fine indignation what is 'right,' 'justice,' and 'equal rights,' he is merely under the pressure of his own uncultured state, which cannot comprehend the real reason for his suffering--what he is poor in: life. And there are certainly passages where Nietzsche seems to hint at anarchistic beliefs. New York: Vintage Books, 1989. '"99 Here we see again evidence of Nietzsche's humanism: the overman is meant as a means to the improvement of humanity. It also asserted that humans could and should seek knowledge of the natural world and that they must use that knowledge along with their own rationality to perfect their societies. What political position finally emerges from this tension between individual and community? And indeed, to an extent he was correct. What Nietzsche did not do, however, was escape Enlightenment. Gilles Deleuze offers a very interesting description of Nietzsche's new ethics. In his critique of Enlightened science, Nietzsche was unable to rid himself of an admiration for scientific rigor, though he railed incessantly against the decadence of nineteenth century science and scientists. Nietzsche's critique of the nineteenth century Enlightenment's project to create democratic individuals was not a critique of the Enlightenment's general project to create viable subjects. This attempt to overcome Enlightenment, however, has a history that begins well before our century, and one of the most important episodes in this history is to be found in the nineteenth century with Friedrich Nietzsche. Rather, he was trying to postulate a new kind of subject which did not yet exist but whose way was prepared by Nietzsche's critique of conventional subjectivity. Nietzsche's concern to promote individuality often manifests itself in attacks on any institution or social phenomenon that might threaten the individual. I believe that this explains much of the ambivalence he seems to experience regarding science. Tracy Strong argues that Nietzsche's attack on egalitarianism is related to his critique of liberal individualism. Nietzsche's critique of Darwin makes it seem as if he was unrelentingly hostile to nineteenth century biological science, and his attack on Spencer suggests an equivalent hostility to the kinds of social theory and practice that arose from Darwinism. Of course, the kind of individual self-creation Nietzsche is advocating is substantially different from the rational self of the Enlightenment. Specifically, his critique of scientific truth in general suggests that any particular scientific "truth" must now be called into question. Friedrich Nietzsche. Cambridge University Press (www.cambridge.org) is the publishing division of the University of Cambridge, one of the world’s leading research institutions and winner of 81 Nobel Prizes. To what extent is Nietzsche's critique of Descartes successful, and what are its limitations? Cartright, David E. "The Last Temptation of Zarathustra." "59 He was unable to return to the utilitarian fold until he had substantially altered the greatest-happiness principle to include this "internal culture.". He is directly tying human progress to science, and placing his faith in nineteenth-century science's ability to underwrite a complex and sophisticated culture. --. For one thing, a sustained concern with the future is characteristic of Nietzsche's work, and this is particularly true of Zarathustra. Darwin forgot the spirit (that is English! Through the twin experiences of eternal recurrence and love of fate, the overman achieves a profound kind of individual being. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992. Further, I feel that this individual, so crucial to Nietzsche's project, represents a refinement and culmination of the Enlightenment's project to create a viable form of subjectivity. --. This landmark study is a detailed textual and thematic analysis of one of Nietzsche’s most important but least understood works. For Rousseau, nature represents a kind of utopian ideal condition; it is the departure from this condition, as humans begin to congregate together in social groups and thus lose their independence, that is responsible for mankind's moral fall. Again, this demonstrates the fundamental tension between Nietzsche's thought and that of the Enlightenment. Its concern with the future and with radical self-improvement place it squarely in the Enlightened tradition. 67Hunt, "The Eternal Recurrence and Nietzsche's Ethic of Virtue," 3. "6 A strange and awkward middle ground, humanity's purpose is to make possible something superior. Nietzsche's far-reaching and thorough critique of the scientific enterprise of his time is an important element in his attack on the Enlightenment. Nietzsche found in Lamarck's thinking a concept of progress which was quite appealing to him. As Ansell-Pearson notes, we must understand Nietzsche's political thought "in the specific context in which [he] articulates his opposition to the development of German Reichspolitik under Bismarckian nationalism and statism. 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